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Association of Retired Senior IPS Officers (ARSIPSO)

This is with reference to my letter No. ARSIPSO/GS-BSD-4/2023 dated. 10/08/2023 on the 4th B.S. Das Memorial Lecture, which had to be rescheduled for unavoidable reasons.

The 4th B.S.Das Memorial Lecture to be delivered by Shri Anil Kumar Sinha, IAS (Retd.), on the subject Disaster Management: Creating Safer Communities, has now been rescheduled for October 14, 2023 as per the following:

Conference Room No. 2, India International Centre, Max Mueller Marg, New Delhi, October 14, 2023 (Saturday)

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  New Dimensions in the field of Police Research (Synopsis of a Talk delivered by Mr. Rakesh Jaruhar IPS of BPR&D at Institute of Social Siences, New Delhi in 2006)  


Explanation of the Theme

Before we talk of new areas of police research, let us discuss what kind of research is relevant or of interest to the Bureau of Police Research & Development. The research works we are interested in fall into two broad categories namely: Academic Research and Policy Research.

Academic research can be in any subject of pure science, social science or applied science. When it comes to science subjects research and development in the applied area is of interest to us depending on its relevance to police. For example, a break through in curing cancer may not interest us but new techniques of DNA identification certainly invokes a lot of interest from police. A lot of them are of interest to us because of their direct relevance to investigation. Some other like substitute for tear gas acoustic based crowd control technology etc. are relevant for other functions of police.

Academic research in social science is also of interest to us. Developments in subjects like criminology, sociology, political science etc. generally are relevant to us. They provide theories and concepts based on which policy research can be done. Police being a sovereign function of the state we do not have private interest for research in the areas that can be of interest to us. Therefore, the Government of India sponsors six Ph.D fellowships every year through BPR&D for academic research in areas relevant to police. However, whether through our fellowship scheme or otherwise we do not come across conceptual development in these areas which can help those who are involved in policy making and policy research. In India we do not come across such eye opening research work in our academies, which can be picked up by us for improving our understanding and strategies.

We are mostly interested in policy research. Policy research is done to help the policy makers take decisions. Policy research is done basically for the utility it promises to the policy makers. While academic world in spite of all their vociferous support for multi-disciplinary research generally confine their research work strictly to a particular discipline, policy research is generally multi-disciplinary it utilizes any concept or theory as long as it has relevance to the objective of the policy research. In official language we call them research projects. Therefore, it is imperative that a policy researcher has proper grounding in the theories and concepts relevant to any policy research. A quality of research project improves with types of theoretical inputs it has used.

Thus, we see the areas of policy research in both types of research and we encourage and sponsor both types of research. BPR&D tries to encourage research work in the areas through fellowship and through sponsoring projects, publishing project report and write-ups on research work.


Research and Development Wing of any Organization primarily works to improve the functioning of the organization with a view to preparing it to meet the new challenges. If not addressed, it will impinge on its efficiency, productivity and quality of service.

The R&D Wing of a Police Organization also has to address the above mentioned parameters of the functioning of the organization. The clients and patrons of the police organization are the people while the service delivered is in the form of maintenance of public order, prevention of crime, prompt registration of complaints and their logical disposal as per law.

Ensuring the above requires research in the field of investigation of traditional crimes as also newer type of crimes like cyber crime measures to overcome financial scams, terrorists related crimes etc. It also requires research in determining effective and humane methods for handling the assembly of citizens out to express their protest and dissent against failure of service/goods providers.

Capacity building of the Police agencies through objective assessment of their workload, both formal and informal, and then evolving norms to provide for adequate manpower and infrastructure is another area, which needs research.

The globalization of domestic regional and national network covering all types of business activities through Internet has increased the vulnerability of the net users through hacking. Net security has emerged as one of the very important fields of research.

Internet enabled financial services have increased the scope of money laundering tremendously. Monitoring of these transactions running into billions per day across the globe has posed a very formidable challenge to the sanctity of legal money. Ways and Means, if not found early to detect these transactions involving tainted money, shall have very serious consequences by making huge sums available for illegal activity.

Violent crimes are facilitated by easy availability of firearms in general and small arms in particular. The grey market in firearms has been flourishing especially after the disintegration of former Soviet Union. A foolproof accounting system for the production of firearms and rigid accounting of their end use for lawful purposes has been missing all these years leading to not only rapid spread of illicit firearm, but escalation of conflict situations in different parts of the world. Therefore, existing system of accounting production and end use of firearms will need to be revamped and replaced with a new system.

Trafficking, Narcotics Trade

Unprecedented spurt in demand and supply of narcotic and psychotropic drugs has shattered the myth that some countries are immune to any form of drug trade. Transshipment status for India has also changed. The funds so generated from drug trafficking are easily available to elements inimically disposed towards our country. The new technologies introduced in trade like fast pace container service, courier services and money transfer by wire or web have boosted the trade in drugs and also reduced the probability of detection. The end result is huge sums of money in the hands of unscrupulous elements who can play havoc with the law enforcement machinery through corruption, muscle power and other coercive means. The new focus in police R&D, therefore, includes evolving more effective means of detection of illicit trade in drug and laying hands on its proceeds before these are laundered.

Trafficking in Human Beings

Vast economic disparities and loosening of borders has accelerated trans national migration. Poor enforcement at the borders due to inadequacy of staff, corruption, lack of commitment to duty etc. has accelerated illegal migration. Vulnerable sections of the migrant, especially women and children, are exploited by the racketeers in such trafficking by pushing them into bonded labour, flesh trade, body organ trade etc.

Innocent persons are lured by promise of gainful settlement abroad. India acts as not only a destination for illegal migration from neighbouring countries but as country of passage and origin for developed countries

Conventional policing has hardly focused any attention on this crime with huge potential for profits and little chance of detection. The entire network of agents responsible for preparing travel/identity documents, arranging passages points to intermediary location and their camping into safe houses followed by fresh documentation and passage to final destination needs to be studied. Identification of such networks can lead to evolving of a strategy for an effective crack down upon these network.

Law and Order in Densely Populated Area

Law and Order situations in congested areas is another area which begs urgent attention to evolve effective counter measures. High density of dwelling units and narrow lanes, not amenable to easy entry, pose formidable challenge to the police. Police R&D has to priotize this area for research in order to develop strategies and necessary infrastructure to effectively manage serious law and order situations in congested areas.

Use of authority by the Police has often come under criticism for its excesses while dealing with various situations involving citizens. Research needs to be conducted to analyze behaviour pattern of persons wielding authority and factors like stress emanating from long and arduous duty shifts, lack of opportunities for rest and relaxation even during off duty interval etc. Findings of scientifically conducted studies by experts in behavioral sciences can throw up the vulnerable areas of misuse of authority which should be addressed by suitable corrective measures.

The Bureau has projected research studies on the following subjects from time to time.

Areas of Research Studies

  1. Police Resource Management
  2. Police Functioning (Law and Order)
  3. Police Functioning (Organisational)
  4. Police Functional (Legal )
  5. Crime Criminal Study
  6. Police-Public relationship
  7. Traffic Police
  8. Public Security

Current Research Subjects

  1. Key Performance Indicators
  2. Police Manual
  3. Insurgency
  4. Use of Forensic Sciences

New Areas of Future Police Research

  1. Measuring Public Expectations of Policing.
  2. Deaths in police custody: learning the lessons.
  3. Evaluation of public consultation and feedback.
  4. The Use of Call Grading: How calls to the police are graded and resourced?
  5. Opportunities for Reducing the Administrative Burdens on the Police.
  6. Effective Shift Systems for the Police Service.
  7. Video Taping of Police Interviews with Suspects - Methodology to be employed.
  8. The effective use of the media.
  9. Understanding and preventing police corruption.
  10. Tenure: policy and practice.
  11. Economic evaluation of policing activity.
  12. Policing Domestic Violence: effective organizational structures.
  13. Witness Intimidation: Strategies for prevention.

The views and facts stated above are entirely the responsibility of the author and do not reflect the views of this Association in any manner.

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